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Ezerani

Ezerani occupies the northern coast of Lake Prespa and is located at approximately 855 meters above sea level. With a protected area of ​​2,080 ha, this site was designated a Strict Nature Reserve in 1996. This part of Lake Prespa is low, swampy and overgrown with reeds.

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Almost all bird species found on the Prespa Lake are nesting, feeding, resting and finding shelter in this protected area. Of the recorded 200 species of birds, 104 are of the group of water birds. Of the total number of birds, 62 are listed in the Bern Convention on the List of Protected Species, and from the list of the 24 most highly protected species of birds with a mean of 3 species are found in the reserve area (Pelicanus crispus, Pelicanus onocrotalus, Haliaeetus albicilla).

From the European Red List of Globally Endangered Species of Animals and Plants issued by the United Nations in 1995, out of a total of 14 Species, W species occur in the area of ​​the Ezerani Reserve (PeIicanus crispus, Phalacrocorah pygmaeus, Haliaeetus albiciIla). The area has scientific-research significance with a special zoological purpose. From the ornithological point of view, the most important part of Lake Prespa is the north, between the villages of Sir-Han and Asamati.

Ezerani extends along the northern shore of Lake Prespa at an altitude of 850 to about 855 m. The border of the Ezerani Nature Park, according to the Law proclaiming the site “Ezerani” on the Prespa Lake Nature Park, begins at the Prekop locality, northwest of the village of Asamati at an elevation of 848 m, then extends northwest along a better trail, about 500 meters long, leaving it and then eastward along the edge of the old fish pond 400 meters long and then turning north and northwest along the old fish pond to the 854 m elevation.

Here the border turns and extends northeast, exits on a bad track that runs north of 750 m, then turns sharply to the west, then extends southwest along the edge of the grove to the site of Staro Selo under the monastery of St. Ivan. Thence the border extends west along the edge of the belt with a reed above Lolichi and in that direction cuts off a bad road and re-emerges on a bad road which leads north to a length of 250 m, after which it turns sharply and heads west after bad track length of about 400 m to the trigonometric point of 851 m where it turns sharply again and leads south at about 300 m, then turns west and extends across the reed belt over the mangrove area of ​​Solejica, where which intersects a better road that ends  and continues to lead the west, crosses two bad roads and weighing continues to lead along the edge of the marshy area over the area Solejnca all the trigonometric point of 852 m.

Here the boundary turns sharply and leads south to the shore of Lake Prespa, passing through the 846 m elevation. In that direction the boundary leads through the Prespa Lake waters to a depth of about 10 m then turns southwest and extends through the Prespa Lake waters to a line marking a depth of about 10 m and northeastwards where it rises on the Prespa Lake shore. Ends at the starting point at the locality Transcop. The detailed borders of Ezerani are shown on the cartographic map in Annex VIII.3 Within these limits, the reserve covers an area of ​​1917 ha of which 1066 ha is a land surface, while 851 ha is a water surface. The ratio of land and water surface is relative as the level of Lake Prespa varies considerably throughout the year and especially over longer periods.

Status of National Protected Area – First Declaration (1996-2012) Ezerani was declared Strict Natural Reserve (SPS) in 1996 by the Parliament of the Republic of Macedonia with the Law on Declaration of the Ezerani Ornithological Site on Prespa Lake, reserve (Official Gazette of RM no. 37/96). The area of ​​the declared nature reserve was 2080 ha.

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Geology and geomorphology

Ezerani is part of the Prespa basin that belongs to the western Macedonian geotectonic zone. Silicate rocks predominate in the eastern part of the catchment area, while the mountains in the southern and western zone are composed mainly of carbonate masses. The protected area itself is located in the lowest part of the catchment area. The morphological depression between the mountain ranges extends at an altitude of about 900 m in the vicinity of Resen and at 800 m at the bottom of Prespa Lake. This depression contains young sediments composed of Lake Pliocene materials (hardened sand, gravel, sludge, clay, lignite) covered by quaternary deposits (Pleistocene and Holocene alluvial deposits) of varying depth. Along the road between Resen and the northern shore of Lake Prespa, geological drilling has reached basic metamorphic rocks at a depth of 150 meters. The total depth of Pliocene-Quaternary and recent (post-glacial) alluvial sediments is likely to increase in the direction of the present Prespa Lake shoreline, ie in the territory of PP Ezerani. In this area where the above-mentioned sediments are most likely to be found, it is estimated that there are approximately 8000 to 10,000 relatively shallow wells used for irrigation and most of them are located in the Resen field, north of Lake Prespa. Between the settlements of Sir Han and Volkoderi and in the vicinity of the villages Grnchari and Podmochani, near the territory of PP Ezerani, there are colluvial terraces of small hills. These sediments were formed from erosive material from the surrounding mountains. The soils formed from these sediments have a more pronounced structure, less cracking 33 and less bulk density, as the initial erosive material has not changed significantly due to the short period of pedogenesis.

Hydrology and hydrography

The Prespa Lake catchment area is characterized by a well-developed hydrographic network in the east and north. All major watercourses are formed at the foot of the mountains Pelister, Bigla and Plakenska Mountain. Golema River along with its left tributary Leva River receive waters from Plakenska Mountain and Bigla. Golema River has the largest catchment area and therefore plays an important role in the lake’s water balance. On the eastern side of the lake, from Pelister Mountain, there are three permanent river flows from N. Macedonia (Brajcinska, Kranska and Kurbinska Reka), one from Greece (Stara Reka), as well as several smaller watercourses from Pelister. Due to the karstic structure of the terrain, the western part of the watershed is characterized by low capacity of the watercourses. There are two not so clear hydrological zones known in Ezerani. In addition to the water obtained directly from the rainfall, the main water flow in Ezerani is provided by the basins of the Big and East River. Due to the characteristic hydrogeological composition of the whole region, groundwater inflow is also significant. It is estimated that the total catchment contributing to the water supply in the reservoir (Big, Eastern and own catchment) is around 250 km2.

The Golema River Basin plays the most significant role in characterizing the hydrology of PP Ezerani plays the Golema River. It is the most important watercourse and the entire Prespa basin. Its source is located near the village. Krushje, Plakenska Mountain. The spring is known as Krushje and provides a significant amount of water for the town of Resen.

The irrigation of the land by the Golema River in the spring was and still is (although its importance has been reduced due to the canalization of the river) the most important factor for the existence of significant marshy habitats in Ezerani. According to the latest data, the basin of Golema Reka covers 182.9 km2, the length of the river is 26.1 km, with an average altitude of 1102 meters, an average fall of 0.153 and a perimeter of 58 km. The total annual flow of Golema River that flows into the lake is estimated at 29.96 million m3 (calculated from a multi-year average). The main inflow into FP Ezerani and Lake Prespa is in the period December-May, with more than 80% of the annual inflow, compared to June-November. This ratio may in the future be increased due to increased use of surface and ground water in the basin for irrigation in the vegetative season. In this context, it is important to mention that the riverbed of Golema Reka has been diverted to an artificially constructed riverbed at the time of construction of the Ezerani wastewater treatment plant. This channel flows into Lake Prespa a few hundred meters east of the original inlet, while a new riverbed flows between former fisheries.

East River Basin The second river that directly flows into Ezerani is the East River.

Climate

The climate in the Prespa valley is exposed to significant Mediterranean and continental influences and is therefore characterized as a continental climate. The Prespa region can be subdivided into Lower (or Small) Prespa and Upper (or Greater) Prespa in terms of climate, similar to the geographical-administrative aspect. Upper Prespa is under stronger continental influence, while Lower Prespa is stronger Mediterranean. In addition, the climate in this region is largely dictated by the Prespa Lake water mass, which with its inert thermodynamics affects the Prespa Lake catchment area. Ezerani is located in the middle of the Prespa Lake basin, on the north side of the lake, which is characterized by a moderate continental climate, opposite to the most eastern and southeastern regions dominated by Mediterranean influence.

The mean annual air temperature is 10.2 ° C (1931-1960) and 9.6 ° C for the period 1961-1987. The hottest month is July, with an average monthly temperature of 19.2 ° C, while the coldest is January, with an average monthly temperature of 0.2 ° C. The earliest freezing temperatures begin in October, with the last frosts ending in May. The average freezing period is about 163 days. Precipitation is most intense in late autumn and winter, with the smallest amount of precipitation recorded during July and August. The average amount of precipitation for the period 1961-1991 is 730 mm (Resen Meteorological Station). It is estimated that the long-term average annual rainfall throughout the Prespa basin is 704 mm / year. There are several local winds in the Prespa valley that are conditioned by the lake water mass, due to uneven heating of air over the lake surface and overland. Thus, in the Macedonian part of the valley, these local winds are named Strmec, Denik and Bezimen. According to data from Resen Meteorological Station, which is representative of FP Ezerani, the following climatic features were recorded during the period when the station was active: – Average annual number of sunny hours is 2300, with an average of 6.3 hours per day – Average cloudiness in recent years The annual rate is 4.8 / 10 (48%). The highest average daily cloud cover was recorded in January and February with 6.4 / 10 (64%) and the lowest in August with 2.1 / 10 or 21%. Average annual relative humidity is 74%, with a maximum of 81% in January and February and a minimum of 66% in July.

Biodiversity

Ezerani’s greatest significance stems from the importance of the biodiversity components present in its territory. The significance of Ezerani is not limited to national contexts, but it is also global.

Consists of oligo-mesotrophic benthic vegetation (Chara spp.)] As important habitats (except underwater climates), while the Bern Convention evaluates them as conservation priority habitats: C1.222 Floats (Hydrocharis morsus-rana) ) rafts [CoE BC Res. No. 45 1996: 22.412 Toad rafts] C1.224

Swimming (Utricularia australis) and (Utricularia vulgaris) colonies [CoE BC Res. No. 4 1996: 22.414 Water bubble colonies] C1.225

Swimming (Salvinia natans) rugs [CoE BC Res. No. 4 1996: 22.415 [Salvinia] covers] C1.25

Underwater carpets in mesotrophic water bodies [Annex I: 3140

Hard oligosmotrophic water with benthic resin vegetation (Chara spp.); CoE BC Res. No. 4 1996: 22.44

Underwater rugs made of algae]

Of particular conservation importance are natural river habitats – C2.3 Non-stationary slow-flowing streams [HD Annex I: 3260

Low-to-low-water vegetation flows from alliances Ranunculion fluitantis and Callitricho-Batrachion], as well as wet meadows: E3.1 Mediterranean High Wetland Formations [HD Annex I: 6420 Mediterranean High Wetland Formations by Molinio-Holoschoen] BC Res. No. 4 1996: 37.4

Mediterranean high humid grass formations] represented by E3.11 Mediterranean high humid grass formations.

Forest and shrub habitats and spruce forests are also a priority for protection: F9.1

Seabirds with stationary type F9.12

Lowland and hilly (hilly) river willows [CoE BC Res. No. 4 1996: 44.1

Reptilian willow formations] ie 4 HD – Habitat Directive or European Union Habitats and Wildlife Directive 5 CoE BC Res. No. 4 – Council of Europe Bern Convention Resolution No. 4 (Council of Europe Convention on Wild Species and Habitats – Bern Convention, Resolution No. 4) 57 F9.123

Balkan Willows River Gibbons and G1.1 Riparian and gallery forests and dominant alder (Alnus), birch (Betula), populus or willow (Salix) forests represented by G1.112 habitats

Mediterranean High Willow Galleries [HD Annex I: 92A0 Salix alba and Populus alba galleries] [CoE BC Res. No. 4 1996: 44.1 Reptilian willow formations] – G1.1121

White Willow Mediterranean Galleries and G1.1122 Forests of (Salix eleagnos) and Jagushka (Salix cinerea).

Flora

Aldrovanda vesiculosa is a particularly important aquatic insect plant of the Droseraceae family.

On a national scale, this plant species is regarded as a critically endangered species in the countries where it is autochthonously represented.

The only data on this species in the Republic of Macedonia. Northern Macedonia testifies that it exists only in Prespa Lake and its distribution is limited to the coastal zone of PP Ezerani.

For two decades this species has not been seen in Ezerani. In addition to the alderwand in PP Ezerani, Salvinia natans and Trapa natans are also protected under the Council of Europe Habitats and Wildlife Directive (listed in annexes II and IV) and the Bern Convention.

Fauna

Invertebrate faunal valorisation regard to invertebrate fauna, 3 species are listed in Annex II and 3 species in Annex IV of the Habitats Directive 92/43 / ЕЕС. Globally affected species (IUCN) are not registered, but the extent of endemism in PP Ezerani with respect to invertebrate fauna is high. Given invertebrate species that are significant at national and international level. List of invertebrates in FP Ezerani that are under international protection, globally affected species or endemics (Source: Smith et al. 2009; supplemented) Type HD (Annex II / IV) * IUCN GB Lists ++ Endemism Spongilla prespensis

– Lake Prespa Dendrocoelum prespense

– Lake Prespa Dendrocoelum adenodactylosum

– Prespa and Ohrid Lake Dactylogyrus prespensis

– Prespa Lake Dactylogyrus balcanicus

Lake Prespa Dactylogyrus crivellus –

– Lake Prespa Malaprespia albanica

– Lake Prespa Vinodolia (Prespiana) lacustris

– Prespa Lake Prespolitorea malaprespensis

– Prespa Lake Prespolitorea valvataeformis

– Prespa Lake Pyrgohydrobia

– Prespa Lake 58 (Prespopyrgula) prespaensis Bythinella lacustris – – Prespa Lake Parabythinella macedonica

– Prespa Lake Parabythinella malaprespensis

– Lake Prespa Lymnaea pinteri

– Lake Prespa Planorbis (Crassiplanorbis) prespensis

– Lake Prespa Pisidium maasseni

– Prespa Lake Potamothrix prespaensis

– Prespa Lake Psammoryctides ochridanus

– Prespa and Ohrid Lake Spirosperma tenuis

– Prespa and Ohrid Lake Stylodrilus leucocephalus

– Lake Prespa and Ohrid Lake Ochridacyclops arndti prespensis

– Prespa Lake Candona marginatoides

– Prespa Lake Candona paionica

– Lake Prespa Typhlocypris prespica

– Southwestern Balkans Leptocythere prespensis

– Prespa and Ohrid Lake Gammarus triacanthus prespensis

– Prespa Lake Lycaena dispar II / IV NT – Zerynthia polyxena IV – Coenagrion ornatum II – – Leucorrhinia pectoralis II / IV

– * Habitats Directive 92/43 / ЕЕС (Annex II / Annex IV) ++ Lists of strictly protected and protected species (Official Gazette of RM 139/2011)

A total of 23 species of fish are registered in Prespa Lake, of which 13 in Ezerani. None of these species is included in the annexes to the EU Habitats Directive, but 8 species are of high conservation status and are categorized as globally affected by the IUCN.

There are eight species of local endemics with a range of distribution limited to Lake Prespa.

List of Prespa Lakes fish’s characteristic of FP Lakes that are of global conservation importance (Source: Smith et al. 2009; amended) Type Macedonian name IUCN MK Lists.

Endemism Alburnoides prespensis Prespa Lake VU ** Prespa Lake Alburnus belvica Prespa Plain VU (2006) Prespa Lake Anguilla anguilla Jagula CR (2008) 59 Barbus prespensis Prespa Lake VU (2006) Prespa Lake Vu (2006) Prespa Lake Prespa Prespa Ship VU (2006) Prespa Lake Cyprinus carpio + Carp; Sharp DD (1996); VU ** Pelasgus prespensis Prespa Lake EN (2006) Prespa Lake Rutilus prespensis Prespa Lake VU (2006) Lake Prespa Squalius prespensis Prespa Lake LC (1996) Lake Prespa * EN – endangered, CR – critical; VU – vulnerable; LC – least affected; DD – not enough data + Introduced since Roman times ** According to Kottelat and Freyhof (2007) ++ Lists of Strictly Protected and Protected Species (Official Gazette of RM 139/2011) The fishery of the Great and Small Prespa Lakes deserves special attention , because it is exceptional, primarily due to the large number of endemic fish species.

With the exception of introduced fish species, according to the IUCN most have the status of vulnerable or critically affected. More detailed data can be found in the Lakes Study (Smith et al. 2009). Amphibian Valorization -The Habitats Directive provides legal protection for 6 species (Annex IV), while species such as the Macedonian marigold (Triturus macedonicus) and the yellow moth (Bombina scabra) are included in the Annex II list. The species in Annex II are of particular interest to the European Union, the protection of which requires specific areas of protection. A total of nine amphibian species are registered for Ezerani and none are included in the three IUCN categories of globally affected species. Amphibians Triturus macedonicus, Bombina scabra and Lissotriton vulgaris are Balkan endemics that are ‘vulnerable’ to their limited distribution range, which covers aquatic ecosystems with disjunctive distribution, only in certain parts of the Balkan Peninsula.

Internationally protected and globally impacted amphibian species in Ezerani (Source: Smith et al. 2009; amended) Type Macedonian name HD (Annex II / IV) * GB Lists ++ Triturus macedonicus Macedonian marigold II / IV Lissotriton vulgaris graec рамоморе 60 60 – 60 Bombina scabra Yellow mulch II / IV Pelobates syriacus balcanicus Balkan Lark Frog IV Pseudepidalea viridis Green toad IV – Hyla arborea Gateway IV – Rana dalmatina Gorse Frog IV – * Habitats Directive II / 43A / IV ) ++ Lists of Strictly Protected and Protected Species (Official Gazette of RM 139/2011) Valorization of reptiles Out of the total number of registered reptiles (14) for the territory of PP Ezerani, inter-nordic protection enjoy 12 species included in Annex IV of the Habitats Directive, while species such as hilly turtle (Eurotestado hermanni), marsh turtle (Emis orbicularis) and lotus (Elaphe quaturolineata) also included in Annex II (animal and plant species of particular interest to the Union, and for which protection should be specified specific areas of protection). There are no reptiles with high global conservation status in the Ezerani FP, ie no species is included on the IUCN species list. The species Eurotestudo hermanni boettgeri, Podarcis tauricus, Podarcis erhardii and Laserta trilineata are Balkan endemics. Table 11. International protected and endemic reptile species in the Ezerani PP (Source: Smith et al. 2009; amended) Type Macedonian name HD (Annex II / IV) * GB Lists ++ Endemism Eurotestudo hermanni boettgeri Rhinoceros turtle II / IV Emys orbicularis Peninsula Swamp Turtle II / IV – Lacerta viridis Green Lizard IV – Lacerta trilineata Large Green Lizard IV Balkan Peninsula Podarcis muralis Scallop Lizard IV – Podarcis tauricus Zamkaestrus IV Steppe IV Lizard Balkan Crustacea longissimus Eskulapov смок IV – Elaphe quatuorlineata Ждрепка II / IV – Natrix tessel lata Fishery IV – Vipera ammodytes Larger IV – * Habitats Directive 92/43 / ЕЕС (Annex II / Annex IV) 61 ++ Lists of Strictly Protected and Protected Species (Official Gazette of RM 139/2011) Valorization of Birds On the Territory 216 species of birds have been registered at PP Ezerani indicating the exceptional importance of this protected area for the ornithofauna of N. Macedonia and beyond. The regional significance (in the European context) is reflected in the fact that 68 species of birds are found here in Annex I to the EU Birds Directive (2009/147 / EC). Globally PP Ezerani is significant due to the presence of 4 species in the IUCN list of globally affected species. Of these, the most important is the Dalmatian Pelican (due to its constant presence). However, Ezerani is not of crucial importance for the pelican right now because this species does not nest within the protected area. The presence of some of these species has not been confirmed for a long time, and some species very rarely occur in  Ezerani. However, the significance of this site for ornithofauna is immense.

Internationally Protected or Globally Affected Species of Birds that can be found in FP Ezerani (Source: Smith et al. 2009; supplemented) Type N. Macedonian name Bird Directive * GB Lists ++ IUCN 1. Gavia arctica Redfish I / – 2. Podiceps auritus Scuba diver I / – 3. Phalacrocorax pygmaeus Small cormorant I strictly guarded. – 4. Pelecanus onocrotalus White (common) pelican I strictly. – 5. Pelecanus crispus Dalmatian pelican I strictly guarded. VU 6. Botaurus stellaris Eurasian Bittern I strictly zash. – 7. Ixobrychus minutus Small water bull; little cowboy I strictly guarded. – 8. Nycticorax nycticorax Night Heron I strictly guarded. – 9. Ardeola ralloides Hives herring I strictly guarded. – 10. Egretta garzetta Little white heron I strictly guarded. – 11. Casmerodius albus Large white heron I strictly guarded. – 12. Ardea purpurea Purple heron I strictly guarded. – 13. Ciconia ciconia White stork I strictly guarded. – 14. Ciconia nigra Black stork I strictly guarded. – 15. Plegadis falcinellus Shiny ibis I strictly guarded. – 16. Platalea leucorodia Japanese spoon I strictly guarded. – 17. Phoenicopterus roseus Flamingo I / – 18. Cygnus cygnus Holocaust swan; swan I strictly guard. – 62 singer 19. Aythya nyroca Shorka; loggerhead I protected NT 20. Mergellus albellus Small northern (white) submerged I / – 21. Mergus merganser Large northern submerged II / – 22. Pernis apivorus Hawk fowl I strictly guarded. – 23. Milvus migrans Black Storm I strictly guarded. – 24. Haliaeetus albicilla White-tailed Eagle I strictly guarded. – 25. Neophron percnopterus Small eagle vulture; bath I strictly guarded. EN 26. Aegypius monachus Black Eagle Vulture I strictly guarded. NT 27. Circaetus gallicus Eagle Serpent I strictly guarded. – 28. Circus aeruginosus Swamp Eya I strictly guarded. – 29. Circus cyaneus Poland eja I strictly guarded. – 30. Circus macrourus Steppe I / NT 31. Circus pygargus Meadow steppe I strictly. – 32. Accipiter brevipes Shortcut hawk I strictly guarded. – 33. Aquila heliaca King’s (baptized) Eagle I strictly guarded. VU 34. Pandion haliaetus Eagle Fisherman I strictly guarded. – 35. Falco naumanni Steppe wind I strongly guard. VU 36. Falco vespertinus Evening (red) breeze I strictly guarded. NT 37. Falco columbarius Small falcon I strictly guarded. – 38. Falco peregrinus Gray Falcon I strictly guarded. – 39. Porzana pusilla Small colorful marsh chicken I strictly guarded. – 40. Grus grus Gray crane I strictly guarded. – 41. Himantopus himantopus Long swordfish I strictly guarded. – 42. Recurvirostra avosetta Crested Swordfish I strictly guarded. – 43. Burhinus oedicnemus Jurulin I strictly. – 44. Glareola pratincola Ordinary marsh swallow I strictly guarded. – 45. Glareola nordmanni Steppe marsh swamp – strictly guarded. NT 46. Charadrius alexandrinus ** Marine Rainbow I strictly guarded. – 47. Philomachus pugnax Bojnik I strictly guarded. – 48. Limosa limosa Black-tailed Ham II strictly guarded. NT 49. Numenius arquata Swamp Duck II / NT 63 50. Tringa glareola Small trout I / – 51. Larus melanocephalus Black-headed seagull I / – 52. Larus minutus Small seagull I strictly guarded. – 53. Larus genei Ternococcal seagull I / – 54. Sterna nilotica Thick-bodied I / – 55. Sterna caspia Caspian thunderbolt I / – 56. Sterna sandvicensis Grecian thunderbolt I / – 57. Sterna hirundo Ordinary thundercloud I / – 58. Little mulberry I / – 59. Chlidonias niger Black mulberry I / – 60. Bubo bubo Owl I / – 61. Caprimulgus europaeus Night swallow; corpse I / – 62. Alcedo atthis Fisherman’s I / – 63. Coracias garrulus Shroud I strictly guarded. NT 64. Dendrocopos syriacus Syrian Pine Woodpecker I / – 65. Dendrocopos medius Plain Pine Woodpecker I / – 66. Calandrella brachydactyla Small lichen I / – 67. Anthus campestris Polish shrimp I / – 68. Acro melon I / – 68. Acro Ficedula albicollis Whitebird I / – 70. Lanius collurio Red-bellied I / – 71. Lanius minor Light gray bush I / – 72. Emberiza hortulana Garden oak I / – ** Published data on the presence of species not considered to be likely to be confirmed or need verification * European Union Directive on the Conservation of Wild Birds (2009/147 / EC) ++ Shield and protected species (Fig. Gazette 139/2011)

Re-proclamation and current status (2012)

In accordance with the IUCN criteria, the specifications in the Macedonian Law on Nature Conservation, as well as the analyzes made by the project team that prepared the Study of Ezerani (Smith et al. 2009), the Ezerani protected area in its present state no longer meets its requirements. primary management objective (strict protection) in the category of strict nature reserve. The main reasons for this are: – A large part of the area of ​​SNR Ezerani was transformed into an agricultural area during the existence of the reserve. orchards were raised with apples – As a result of the unresolved property and legal relations in the context of the land in SNR Ezerani, and especially in relation to the previous indent, a strong conflict has been created between the local population (mainly from the villages of Asamati, Ezerani and Dolno Perovo) and protection the biodiversity that has resulted in the deliberate disregard of the legal provisions governing this type of protected area and the deliberate degradation of the area’s natural values; – In line with the previous and as a result of natural changes in the water level of Prespa Lakes there has been a need to change the boundaries of SNR Ezerani as well as urgent interventions to restore and preserve significantly degraded habitats in the area; – The final result of the negative trends over the last 15 years is the emerging situation regarding non-compliance with the legal provisions regarding protection in protected areas and the current situation in the  Ezerani: o The Ezerani area does not correspond to the definition of Article 68 SRS. , paragraph 1 of the Law on Nature Protection; in particular the provisions of paragraph 3 of the same Article cannot be complied with because the ecosystems in FP Ezerani are so degraded or altered that they cannot be left entirely to natural revitalization processes;

The provisions of Article 70, paragraph 1, indents 1 and 3 cannot be implemented in  Ezerani because the nature of the habitats and natural processes are impaired, as well as line 7 as it is impossible to restrict access to the local population to own property; practice from the past 15 years has shown that human activities in the area cannot be completely excluded.

The rich and relatively well-preserved biodiversity of Ezerani, especially in the context of the entire Prespa Lake, possesses important features at world, European and regional level. This is reflected in the special status that Lake Prespa enjoys (along with Little Prespa Lake in the neighboring countries – Greece and Albania) shown through its designation as an important area on various international lists. FP Ezerani is a Ramsar site as part of Lake Prespa (Fig. 1) designated as Ramsar Site of International Importance code 3MK0011.

Ezerani has been identified as an Emerald area and is included in the National Emerald Network (MEPP 2009) within the former Strict Nature Reserve “Ezerani”. It also covers part of the Emerald Area “Prespa Lake” (Map of Fig. 5). Emerald is a network of areas of special conservation interest, designated according to the criteria of the Berne Convention (Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Sustainable Habitats, 1979) equivalent to the Natura 2000 network established in the territory of the European Union Member States. The Natura 2000 network is established on the basis of the Birds Directive (2009/147 / EC ex. 79/409 / EEC) declaring SPA Special Protection Areas as well as the Habitats Directive (92 / 43 / EEC) as special areas for the conservation of natural habitats and wild species (SAC – Special Area of ​​Conservation).

The significance of Ezerani is also of great importance on a regional level.

Namely, Ezerani contributes significantly to the value of the entire Prespa region in terms of biodiversity. That value has been recognized by the three Prespa-sharing states as a result of which in 2000 a memorandum was signed by the prime ministers of Albania, Greece and N.Macedonia on the establishment of the Prespa Transboundary Park, which encompasses both Prespa Lakes (Big and Small Prespa Lakes). along with their catchment area. Most of the Prespa Lakes basin is in N.Macedonia, while Albania and Greece share the remaining smaller. The small Prespa Lake is shared by Greece (about 80% of the watershed) and Albania. The Prespa Lake Basin belongs to three local administrative units, one in each country: the Municipality of Resen in N. Macedonia, the Municipality of Korca in Albania and the Municipality of Prespa in Greece. About 30,000 inhabitants live in the Prespa region. The total water area is 1349.2 km2, of which 1095.3 km2 belong to the Big Prespa Lake and 254 km2 to the Little Prespa Lake.

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