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Jablanica Mountain

Jablanica is a mountain in the southwestern part of Republic of N. Macedonia, between Ohrid-Struga and Debar Valley. The mountain along the ridge extends along the Macedonian-Albanian border. The highest peak is “Crn Kamen” (Black Stone – 2,258 m), and other famous peaks are Strizhak (2,233 m), Krstec (2,186 m) and Chumin Vrv (2,125 m). The mountain can be reached through Vevcani, which is at the foot of the mountain. Jablanica is home to four glacial lakes and is rich in water, chestnut, oak and beech forest. The mountain abounds with mountain pastures and is visited by many tourists. From Vevcani, towards the highest peak – Crn Kamen, there are three marked paths.

Forests and the rest of the flora give the mountain a special landmark as you climb Jablanica, you know that you are over 1800 meters above sea level where the forests stop, and the mountain pastures are already looming. The dense beech forests create a special climate effect, making the air refreshing, rich in oxygen and aromatic relaxing scent. Dense complexes of virgin forests are also noticeable. In addition to forests, a variety of communities of rare, endemic, medicinal plants, forest fruits (forest strawberries, blueberries, blackberries, hawthorn …) are emerging from the flora. Jablanica has an extremely diverse wildlife. Thus, large animals include bears, wolves, foxes, deer, wild boars, rabbits, deer, and in recent years the presence of the Balkan lynx, which has only a few more mountains, has been noticeable and confirmed.

About a dozen mountain glaciers descended beneath the peaks of the valleys, transporting and piling up eroded rock material in the form of seas. According to current research, Jablanica has 5 large and several smaller cirques, all with generally eastern, SI and FI exposure (Kolchakovski, 2010). The largest are the circ in the original Belichka River, between Crn Kamen (2257 m) and Jumin Peak (2125 m); The Vevcani Circ, between the Podgorica Circ in the north and the Belichka Ridge in the south; Podgorica Circ, between the Vevcani Circ to the south and the Labunshki Circ to the north and the Southern and Northern Labuniski Circ, respectively, to the two Labunishki circes separated by the Pupoljak peak (2054 m). Later, in the carved parts of the circ, glacial lakes were formed, which the local population called “puddles”. They are the largest in Podgorci, then the deepest in Vevcani, and the small Gorno and Lower Labunisko Lake. All are at an altitude of 1890 to 2000 m. In addition to the above, there are 6 smaller puddles, mostly of intermittent nature. Typical rolls have not been identified so far. At the foot of the circ there are large headwaters and fluvial voids are present in the valleys. Interestingly, under the dominant Jablanica dominant cirques, which are about 2,000 m high, there is a lower sequence of smaller and less pronounced stadial cirques at about 1 800 m high (such as the cave above Vevcanska Golina or above Jankovi Lazi; Milevski)., 2015 b). Jablanica also has one valve in the source part of the Labunishka River, 1.5 km long, and some indications of valleys are found in the source areas of Belichka, Vevchanska and Podgorica River (Kolchakovski, 1996c).

The flora-vegetation diversity of Jablanica Mountain is a subject of interest for a longer period. The floristic literature provides significant data on this area from a number of botanists, of which the works of Chernivski (1943), Micevski (1956, 1973, 1977, 1978, 1980, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1987, 1988) are of particular importance. , 1993, 1995, 1998, 2001, 2005), Em (1959, 1967), Micevski & Matevski (1986-1987, 1991), Matevski (1986-87, 1987, 1991), Dimitrov (1997) and others.

During 2015, field surveys were carried out on several occasions at several localities in the research area. Flora vegetation inspection is done in the belt of hilly pastures, forest communities up to the belt of mountain pastures. Flora-vegetation valorization was performed according to the above criteria in the methodology section. The following results were obtained from the valorization: – IUCN Red List of Threatened Plant Species (1998): • Minuartia baldaccii (Halácsy) Mattf. • Soldanella pindicola Hausskn. • Pinus peuce Griseb. • Viola eximia Form • Solenanthus scardicus Bornm. – CORINE species: • Lilium albanicum Griseb. E • Botrychium lunaria (L.) Swartz. AL – List of Important Plant Areas in the Republic of Macedonia: • Minuartia baldaccii (Halácsy) Mattf. A (iv) • Soldanella pindicola Hausskn. A (iv) • Pinus peuce Griseb. A (iv) • Viola eximia Form A (iv) • Solenanthus scardicus Bornm. A (iv) • Trifolium pilczii Adam. A (iv) • Lilium albanicum Griseb. A (iv) – Locus classicus: • Fritillaria macedonica Bornm. • Hieracium heteromixtum O. & E. Behr • Dianthus jablanicensis Micev. • Soldanella dimoniei Vierh. – Local endemics: • Dianthus jablanicensis Micev. – Unique sites in Macedonia: • Nigritella nigra f. rosea • Alchemilla gracillima Rothm. • Ranunculus montanus Willd. • Campanula thymphaea Hausskn. • Erica herbacea L. – (1-5) site in Macedonia: • Sanguisorba officinalis • Alchemilla plicatula Gandoger • Berberis croatica • Cryptogramma crispa (L.) R. Br • Pulsatilla vernalis (L.) Miller • Aconitum lamarckii Reich. var. macedonicum Micev. • Genista radiata (L.) Scop • Potentilla crantzii (Crantz) Beck • Euphorbia amygdaloides L. var. chaixiana (Timb. -Lagr.) Boiss. • Athyrium distentifolium Tausch ex Opiz • Lilium chalcedonicum L. • Kitaibelia vitifolia L. • Huperzia sellago (L.) Bernh. • Delphinium peregrinum Pawl. • Alchemilla staminea Busser. • Alchemilla heterotricha Rothm. • Trifolium badium Screb. • Polygala alpestris

Most of the areas are under forest vegetation dominated by deciduous forests. Most of them are beech, but also oak and chestnut forests. Beech forests are mainly of generic origin, indicating that they are for the most part well preserved even though some commercial activities have been carried out there. Oak forests are found along the lower and eastern parts of the area, as well as on smaller areas in certain enclave enclaves. In terms of quality and preservation they are much weaker than beech forests, and only on some small areas can well-preserved oak assemblages be found. Chestnut forests are of importance as the chestnut is a valued forest and fruit tree species. The local population has a special attitude towards this type of tree and largely uses its fruits. However, a significant proportion of these forests are also affected by cancerous disease of the bark of the tarred chestnut, causing drying of older trees. In order to prevent the drying of these forests in certain parts clean cuttings have been made due to which the restoration is of vegetative origin and so called. littoral chestnut forests.

The coniferous forests in the area are created artificially through afforestation of erosive and deforested forest areas. Most of them are black and white pine, but other species are also found. In the Vevcani forests, single or in groups, there are also larger numbers of other types of trees, such as: wild cherry, mountain maple, black clear, sorbus, hornbeam and others.

Some areas of the area are heavily degraded by low-lying vegetation, which is caused by the destruction of part of the oak and beech forest communities, and sub-alpine beech forest is found in the western part of the Upper Belica region.

Historically the forests of Jablanica Mountain have been of great importance in the past. In different historical periods they have been treated in various ways in order to provide for the basic needs of the tree for the people and society. In the distant past, forests have been destroyed for the purpose of creating high mountain pastures, creating agricultural areas, and utilizing larger amounts of wood as a material resource. As a result, degraded and deforested parts of the area are still visible today. However, due to the attitude and the cult of the people of Vevcani region towards the forest, most of the forests are preserved in natural form. Therefore, there are also preserved forest communities in this area with many important plant and forest species.

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This forest community is distributed in the lower parts of Jablanica Mountain in the part of the village Radozda towards the village of Oktisi at an altitude of 700 to 900 m. It grows on steep slopes with slopes from 20 to 30˚ on carbonate geological substrate. A steep part of the forest are the sides that descend towards the Struga Field, which are intersected by many dales, steep sides and narrow riverbanks, making them inaccessible. The soils are ore forest, shallow, skeletal and quite dry.

The Oak Grove forest community looms high above the oak forests. It is spread over 800 to 1100m above sea level. This community is a climatic zone with the dominant species being the oak borer (Quercus petraea). It is widespread on carbonate geological substrate, on which they are formed brown forest soils that are medium deep and medium humus. The slope of the terrain ranges from 11 to 20˚. According to the floristic composition this community is very rich, and it is dominated by thermomezophile elements.

The following species are found on the floor of the trees: Quercus petraea, Quercus cerris, Fagus moesiaca, Sorbus torminalis and others.

The following species are found on the bush floor: Fraxinus ornus Crategus monogina, Corilys avellana, Cornus mas, Juniperus communis, Rosa canina and others.

On the ground floor: Luzula forsteri, Ciclamen neapolitanum, Lathyrus venetus, Festuca heterophyla and others.

In this forest community, too, there are areas where inappropriate and intensive practices of forest resource use are adopted. Because of this, some of them are of Edinburgh origin but also more preserved parts of forest of generic origin.

  • asss. Festuco heterophyllae Fagetum (Em 1965) Rizovski & Dzekov ex Matevski et al. 2011 – Community of Podgorica Beech Forest

The forest community of the Podgorica beech forest is found at an altitude of 1000 to 1250m. It rises high above the upper forest belt. It is spread over a carbonate geological substrate on which brown forest soils are formed that are medium deep and rich in humus and littoral. The terrain is medium to steep, with slopes of 11 to 20˚ and 21 to 30˚, interspersed with short valleys and dunes. The climate is mountainous with cool summers and cold and snowy winters.

The dominant tree species in the community is the beech Fagus moesiaca, and the following species are also found on the tree floor: Quercus petraea, Populus tremula, Prunus avium and others.

In the shrub floor, which is poorly expressed due to the great shade of beech, the following species are found: Corylus avellana, Crategus monogina, Cornus mas, Fraxinus ornus, Rosa canina and others.

The ground floor vegetation is dominated by mesophilic species that have adapted to beetle dispersal and beetle eclipse. Floristically, this floor is the richest of geophytes, ie species that develop early in the spring before landing and assembling the forest, then drying out and reappearing next year.

On the ground floor vegetation in the Podgorica beech forest are: Festuca heterophilla, Dentaria bulbifera, Luzula silvatica, Anemonia agrimonoides, Melica uniflora, Asperula odorata and others.

Depending on the placement and practices used in the past, this forest community has been preserved in high tree form but in many places for reuse is of aquatic origin. This community has a large business community and has intensive forestry activities. In certain parts of this forest community

Artificially more coniferous species have been introduced such as: white pine, duglia, fir, larch, spruce and others.

  • ass. Fago-Pinetum nigrae (Ht. Et Em 1963) Em 1981

This forest community is found on smaller areas at altitudes of 1000 to 1500 m. The geological substrate is carbonate, and the soils are deep-to-deep brown forest. The terrain is moderately steep to steep slope. This forest community has in the past carried out large-scale forest management activities that cut down on beech and artificially introduced black pine and white pine.

The following species are found on the tree floor: Fagus moesiaca, Pinus nigrae, Pinus silvestris and others.

On the bush floor: Rosa cannina, Juniperus communis etc.

On the ground floor: Galium vernum, Brachipodium pinnatum, Calamagrostis arundinacea, Pteridium aguilnum, Genista sagittalis and others.

The plantations of this forest community are generally at a younger age and are therefore subject to breeding measures.

  • ass. Castanetum sativae macedonicum (Rudski 1938) Nik. 1951 – Community of pure chestnut forests

The forest community of pure chestnut forests on Jablanica Mountain is found on several bridges in the areas of the villages: Frangovo, Radolista, Oktisi, Vevcani, Podgorci and Labunista. It is locally ecologically conditional and occupies sheltered terrain and owls. The geological substrate is carbonate and the soils brown, deep to medium deep. Chestnut forests are generally distributed at altitudes of 800 to 1100 m.

The chestnut is dominated by the chestnut Castanea sativa, and there are also Fagus moesiaca, Quercus petreae and others.

On the floor of shrubs are: Corylus avellana, Fraxinus ornus, Carpinus betulus, Rosa cannina and others.

This forest community has great economic and bio-environmental significance. Chestnut is a valuable tree both as a variety, as a material and as a fruit tree. However, many of these forests have been converted to Edinburgh because of the clean cuts that have been carried out to restore chestnut forests, since many of the old trees are welded to drying processes.

 

  • ass. Calimintho grandiflorae – Fagetum (Em 1965) Rizovski & Dzekov ex Matevski et al. 2011 – Community of beech forest

The mountain beech forest is distributed in the cold continental plateau area. This climatic zone and the Jablanica Mountain range in the belt from 1200 to 2000 m above sea level. The geological substrate is carbonate on which deep, fresh and loose brown forest soils are formed. It is found on terrain with different inclination and inclination and is best developed on colder exposures.

The beech Fagus moesiaca dominates the tree floor, with the following species: Acer pseudoplatanus, Acer platanoides, Populus tremula and others.

The following species are found on the bush floor: Corylus avellana, Cornus mas and others.

The following species are found in the ground floor vegetation: Calamintho grandiflorae, Robus ideus, Dentaria bulbifera, Poa nemoralis, Asperula odorata, Viola silvestris, Alium ursinum, Epilobium montanum, Anemone nemorosa, Atropa belladona, Paris quadradia, Paris quadradolia.

In this forest community, some of the forests are of general origin and part of ancestral origin. They are characterized by high wood mass production and have great commercial appeal.

 

  • ass. Asyneumo pichleri-Fagetum (Em 1961) Dzvonko et al. 1999 corr.

Matevski et al. 2011 Subalpine Beech Forest Community

 

In the Subalpine Belt along the high parts of Jablanica Mountain there are parts of the Subalpine beech forest. They are between 1650 and 1900 m above sea level. The geological substrate is carbonate with shallow brown forest soils.

 

The beech Fagus moesiaca is dominated by the tree floor, and a single and less mountain maple can be found.

 

On the bush floor a small number of species are found, such as:

Juniperus commumis, Rosa cannina and others.

 

The following species are found on the ground floor vegetation: Pirola secunda, Luzula silvatica, Hieracium nurorum, Mulgedium sonchifolium, Doronicum orphanidis, Poligonatum vrticillatum, Bruckenthalia spiculifolia and others.

This forest community is decided by poor quality and deformed trees, with poor productivity and poor quality. It has no economic significance but is of great importance to the bio-ecological stability of the Jablanica Mountain forests as it develops under the most unfavorable conditions and builds the upper belt of forest vegetation.

The Jabalnica Mountain has in the past been little researched from a mycological point of view. The most extensive data on the fungal diversity of Jablanica Mountain can be obtained from Karadelev’s scientific research and others. (2007) A total of 178 species have been recorded, of which 158 Basisiomycota, 16 Ascomycota and 4 Mixomicota. Most of the species belong to the following families: Tricholomataceae (39), Boletaceae and Russulaceae (15), Polyporaceae (12), Cortinariaceae (10), Amanitaceae (6), and the rest of the families are represented by a smaller number of species. The best investigated were beech forests, where 106 species were recorded, then oak communities with 49 species, pine plantations with 20 species and 15 species were found on meadows and pastures. Of the registered fungi, 124 are tericular and 93 are lignicular. Since beech forests are the most abundant, most lignocline species occur on corpses, fallen borders and rotten beech trees. Other substrates of lignicular species are the following: oak (10), trees used in civil engineering (9), pine (5), falcon (Dichomitus campestris, Clitopilus hobsonii and Lachnum virgineum), maple (Cerrena unicolor, Rhytisma acerinum and Sawadaea) , Prunus (Dichomitus campestris and Phellinus pomaceus), Carpinus (Propolis farinosa), Crataegus (Vuilleminia cystidiata) and Fraxinus (Stereum hirsutum). Ecto-mycorrhizal genera are 16, of which the genera Boletus (10), Tricholoma (8), Lactarius (8), Amanita (7) and Russula (7) are represented with the largest number of species, while the other genera are represented by fewer species of Cortinarius (5), Hygrophorus (4), Laccaria and Xerocomus (2), Chroogomphus, Entoloma, Hebeloma, Hypholoma, Leucocortinarius, Phylloporus and Suilus (1). The most common species of beech forests are: Amanita rubescens, Armillaria mellea, Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius, Diatrype disciformis, Gymnopus dryophilus, Hebeloma sinapizans, Lepista nebularis, Polyporus varius, Schizopora paradoxa, Trisum hirsutum, S. tirsutum ; in oak forests: Amanita caesarea, Boletus aereus, Boletus aestivalis Boletus queletii, Omphalotus ollearius, Peniophora quercina, Stereum hirsutum, T. versicolor and Vuilleminia comedens; in pine stands: Mycena epipterigia, Suillus luteus, Tricholoma terrreum; in meadows and pastures: Bovista plumbea, Calvatia utriformis, Marasmius oreades and Porpoloma pes-caprae. The following species may be parasitic: Rhytisma acerinum, Sawadaea bicornis (maple), Armillaria mellea, Fomes fomentarius, Fomitopsis pinicola (beech), Daedaleopsis confragosa, Phellinus igniarius (Salix), Daedalea quercus (Prunus).

Regarding the nourishment ie. poisoning can be stated as follows: 86 species can be used in food, while 22 are poisonous. Some edible species, such as Armillaria mellea, Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius, Craterellus cornucopioides, Hydnum repandum, Marasmius oreades and Lactarius deliciosus have excellent culinary characteristics. Of concern is that species such as Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius, Craterellus cornucopioides, Hydnum repandum, and Lactarius deliciosus are collected in large quantities by the local population and sold at local purchasing points. As a result of over-exploitation and improper collection of mushrooms, the vitality of these species has been reduced.

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  • Location:

    Belasica Mountain – Municipality of Novo Selo

  • Max. heigh:

    39,5 m

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The following forest communities are found on Jablanica Mountain:

  • ass. Qurco pubescentis – Ostryetum carpinifoliae Ht. 1938 – Community of oak and blackberry,
  • ass. Qurco – Carpinetum orientalis macedonicum Rudski apud. Ht. 1938 – Community of oak and white hornbeam,
  • ass. Quercetum frainetto – cerris macedonicum Oberd. 1948 Em. Ht. 1959 subass. Carpinetosum orientalis – a community of oak slabs, oak cherries and white hornbeam,
  • ass. Quercetum frainetto – cerris macedonicum Oberd. 1948 Em. Ht. 1959 – Community of Oak Tile and Oak Tile,
  • ass. Carpino orientalis-Quercetum frainetto Riz. 1978 – Community of white hornbeam and oak slab
  • ass. Orno-Quercetum petreae Em 1968 – Community of oak forests 
  • ass. Festuco heterophyllae Fagetum (Em 1965) Rizovski & Dzekov ex Matevski et al. 2011 – Community of Podgorica Beech Forest
  • ass. Calimintho grandiflorae – Fagetum (Em 1965) Rizovski & Dzekov ex Matevski et al. 2011 – Community of beech forest
  • ass. Asyneumo pichleri-Fagetum (Em 1961) Dzvonko et al. 1999 corr.

Matevski et al. 2011 Subalpine Beech Forest Community

  • ass. Fago-Pinetum nigrae (Ht. Et Em 1963) Em 1981
  • ass. Castanetum sativae macedonicum (Rudski 1938) Nik. 1951 – Community of pure chestnut forests
  • ass. Qurco pubescentis – Ostryetum carpinifoliae Ht. 1938 – Community of oak and blackberry
Fauna

According to the literature available so far, the species composition of the Jablanica Mountain Groundwater is insufficiently investigated. According to field investigations as well as available literature data (Sterjovski et al. (2010)) on the Jablanica Mountain, 11 species of amphibians have been recorded: Lissotriton vulgaris (Common Triton), Ichthyosaura alpestris (Alpine Triton), Salamadra salam , Bombina variegata (Fire frog), Pseudepidalea viridis (Green toad), Bufo (Common toad), Hyla arborea (Catwalk), Rana dalmatina (Sturgeon), Rana graeca (Greek frog), Pelophylax ridib and Rana temporaria.

The valorisation of the amphibian species detected has been carried out according to international conventions and legislation, including: • Convention on the Protection of European Wild Species and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention), • European Habitats Directive, • Emerald Network • Convention for International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). According to the field analysis as well as the Jablanica Mountain Valorization Study prepared by the Macedonian Jablanica Mountain Ecological Society including the Vevcani Springs Monument, a total of 86 species of birds have been registered.

 

 

 

  Вird species:

 

 

Bird directive

 

Bern convention

 

 

IUCN

 

Bonn convention

1 Pernis apivorus I II LC II
2 Circaetus gallicus I II LC II
3 Accipiter gentilis / II LC II
4 Accipiter nisus / II LC II
5 Buteo / II LC II
6 Aquila chrysaetos I II LC II
7 Falco tinnunculus / II LC II
8 Falco peregrinus I II LC II
9 Alectoris graeca I III LC /
10 Coturnix II/B III LC II
11 Tringa ochropus / II LC II
12 Columba livia II/A III LC /
13 Columba palumbus II/A / LC /
14 Streptopelia decaocto II/B III LC /
15 Streptopelia turtur II/B III LC II
16 Cuculus canorus / III LC /
17 Strix aluco / II LC /
18 Caprimulgus europaeus I II LC /
19 Upupa epops / II LC /
20 Picus viridis / II LC /
21 Dryocopus martius I II LC /
22 Dendrocopos leucotos I II LC /
23 Dendrocopos minor / II LC /
24 Dendrocopos major / II LC /
25 Alauda arvensis II/B III LC /
26 Anthus trivialis / II LC /
27 Cinclus / II LC /
28 Lullula arborea I III LC /
29 Ptyonoprogne rupestris / II LC /
30 Hirundo rustica / II LC /
31 Hirundo daurica / II LC /
32 Delichon urbica / II LC /
33 Anthus trivialis / II LC /
34 Anthus spinoletta / II LC /
35 Motacilla cinerea / II LC /
36 Motacilla alba / II LC /
37 Cinclus / II LC /
38 Troglodytes / II LC /
39 Prunella modularis / II LC /
40 Prunella collaris / II LC /
41 Turdus merula II/B III LC II
42 Turdus philomelos II/B III LC II
43 Turdus viscivorus II/B III LC II
44 Erithacus rubecula / II LC II
45 Phoenicurus ochruros / II LC II
46 Saxicola rubetra / II LC II
47 Oenanthe / II LC II
48 Monticola saxatilis / II LC II
49 Luscinia megarhynchos / II LC II
50 Phoenicurus / II LC II
51 Monticola solitarius / II LC II
52 Sylvia atricapilla / II LC II
53 Sylvia curruca / II LC II
54 Phylloscopus collybita / II LC II
55 Muscicapa striata / II LC II
56 Aegithalos caudatus / III LC /
57 Parus palustris / II LC /
58 Parus caeruleus / II LC /
59 Parus major / II LC /
60 Parus lugubris / II LC /
61 Parus ater / II LC /
62 Sitta europaea / II LC /
63 Sitta neumayer / II LC /
64 Tichodroma muraria / II LC /
65 Certhia familiaris / II LC /
66 Oriolus oriolus / II LC /
67 Lanius collurio I II LC /
68 Lanius minor I II LC /
69 Garrulus glandarius II/B / LC /
70 Pica II/B / LC /
71 Pyrrhocorax graculus / II LC /
72 Corvus monedula II/B / LC /
73 Corvus corone II/B / LC /
74 Sturnus vulgaris II/B / LC /
75 Fringilla coelebs / III LC /
76 Carduelis carduelis / II LC /
77 Carduelis cannabina / II LC /
78 Carduelis chloris / II LC /
79 Serinus serinus / II LC /
80 Coccothraustes / II LC /
81 Emberiza citrinella / II LC /
82 Emberiza cirlus / II LC /
83 Miliaria calandra / III LC /
84 Emberiza cia / II LC /
85 Passer domesticus / / LC /
86 Passer montanus / III LC /

Valorization of the identified bird species revealed that:

  • 11 species are found in Annex I, 2 species in Annex II / A and 12 species in Annex II / B of the Birds Directive (2009/147 / EC)
  • 64 species are listed in Annex II, and 15 species in Annex III of

Convention on the Conservation of European Wild Species and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention),

  • All identified species are rated as least endangered

IUCN Red List;

  • 26 of the identified bird species are listed in Annex II of the Migratory Wildlife Protection Directive (Bonn Convention)

 

Based on the data obtained from the conducted field activities it was found that:

– 48 species of bird’s nest in oak forests, and one species comes in oak forests in search of food;

– 30 species of bird’s nest in beech forests;

– 19 species of bird’s nest in the high-mountain pastures, and 4 species are in search of food.

– In the settlements there are 22 species of birds and 10 species that feed here.

According to the Jablanica Mountain Valorization Study prepared by the Macedonian Ecological Society on Jablanica Mountain, 40 species of mammal species are found to constitute 49% of the total fauna of mammals in the Republic of Northern Macedonia.

1. Erinaceus concolor
2. Sorex minutus
3. Sorex araneus
4. Neomys anomalus
5. Neomys fodiens
6. Talpa caeca
7. Talpa stankovici
8. Rhinolophus ferrumequinum
9. Rhinolophus hipposideros
10. Rhinolopus euryale
11. Rhinolopus blasii
12. Myotis
13. Myotis blythiи
14. Myotis mystacinus
15. Pipistrellus savii
16. Miniopterus schreibersi
17. Lepus europaeus
18. Sciurus vulgaris
19. Clethrionomys glareolus
20. Dinaromis bogdanovi
21. Microtus subterraneus
22. Apodemus flavicollis
23. Apodemus sylvaticus
24. Nannospalax leucodon
25. Myoxus glis
26. Muscardinus avellanarius
27. Dryomis nitedula
28. Canis lupus
29. Vulpes vulpes
30. Ursus arctos
31. Mustela nivalis
32. Mustela putorius
33. Martes
34. Martes foina
35. Meles meles
36. Felis silvestris
37. Lynx
38. Sus scrofa
39. Capreolus capreolus
40. Rupicapra rupicapra balcanica

According to field investigations, as well as available literature data (Sterjovski et al. (2010) on the Jablanica Mountain, 20 species of reptiles have been identified: Eurotestudo hermanni, Testudo graeca (Greek turtle), Emys orbicularis, Algyro turtle). nigropunctatus (Scarlet Lizard), Podarcis muralis (Wall Lizard), Podarcis erhardii (Macedonian Lizard), Podarcis tauricus (Steppe Lizard), Lacerta trilineata (Balkan Green Lizard), Lacerta viridis (Green Lizard), Lizard fragilis (Slepock), Platyceps najadum (Wheat), Zamenis longissimus (Eskulapov fig), Elaphe quatuorlineata (Crab), Coronella austriaca (Honey snake), Dolicho phis caspius (жолт смок), Natrix tessellata (Fish), Natrix natrix (Bellowska), Vipera ammodytes (Ponokk) and Vipera berus (Pharaoh).

Jablanica entomofauna is similar in composition to the fauna of other western Macedonian mountains and is characterized by a high percentage of endemic and relict species. The following endemic species are found in the high-mountain zone: Trechus nezlobinskyi, Calathus albanicus, C. ravasinii macedonicus, Carabus cavernosus, Nebria macedonica rambouseki, Zabrus albanicus jablanicensis; in mesophilic forests: Carabus croaticus droveniki, C. caelatus sarajevoensis, Tapinopterus miridita jablanicensis, T. rambousekianus, Molopsrufipes steindachneri, Myas chalybaeus, Aptinus merditanus, Molops osmanilis; beside rivers and streams: Bembidion rhodopense, B. hypocrita illyricum, Pterostichus ljubetensis. In the thermophilic oak forests, there are some interesting species (rare and endemic): Gynandromorphus etruscus, Carabus graecus morio, C. coriaceus florinensis. Other endemic species of invertebrates should be mentioned:

Montenegrina dedovi, A. serbica golesnicensis, Euxinella radikae, Helix secernenda (snails), Chromatoiulus hamuligerus, Paeonisoma faucium and Ochridaphe albanica, Armadillidium obenbergeri, Trachelipus dimorphensis and Porcellinus spp. Troglophilus lazaropolensis (locusts).

Of the endemic invertebrates or species described by Galicica, the following may be listed: Winklerites blazeji, Duvalius vignai, Trechus galicicaensis, Nebria macedonica galicica, Ohridiola marinae, Geostiba galicicana, Montenegrina perstriata ochridensis, Camaria ochridensis, Camerica ochridensis ochrida, Neobisium ohridanum, Chthonius ohridanus, Thyreocoris ohridanus, Ctenophthalmus agyrtes ohridanus, Zodarion ohridense, Xysticus tenebrosus ochridensis, Vadonia unipunctata ohridensis, Phryganea ochrida.

Visni, Oktisi, Gorna Belica, Labunista, Boroec and Jablanica are just some of the settlements on the slopes of this mountain. But the best of the entire Vevcani region is best known for its beautiful Vevcani springs, a distinctive and special Mijak tradition, unique to any of the surrounding settlements, great food, St. Nicholas Church, the mills of which only one is still in operation, the Mihajlo Pupin museum whose family roots are from Vevcani, Vevcani Carnival and so on.

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